1989 Vol. 2, No. 6
According to the Chinese Soil Taxonomy Classification (the second edition),based on the 64 soil profiles data collected in Jianfengliug region,Hainan Island,selecting 5 diagnostic characteristics (OM,pH,BS,Al,ECEC) of the soils,using the methods of both principal component analysis and discriminatory analysis,the soil types were classified into 7 subgroups as follows: humic yellow soil,surface-gley yellow soil(belonging to yellow soil great group);typical lateritic yellow soil(belonging to lateritic yellow soil great group);humic latosol,moist latosol and rich-base latosol(belonging to latosol great group) and dry red earth great group.The total accuracy of discrimination is more than 75.6%.The equations were established through the principal component analysis.They defined the eigenvalues,delimitation index and the figure of the principal component scattering points with discriminatory boundaries of soil classification.The variation of the types both in the boundaries of soil classification and the characteristics of the soils are of significant difference.
The soils of olive (Olea eurbpaea L.) plantation in Hubei Province (Wuchang County,Yichang Region,and Dangyang County) and Shanxi Province (Chenggu County) were investigated and analysed from 1983 to 1987,at the same time,the relations between olive growth,fruit bearing status and soil chemical properties were also studied.The results show that the best soil conditions being suitable for olive culture are pH 7-8,calcium carbonate 5%,organic matter1.8%,available N 74.4-87.4 mg/kg,available P40 mg/kg,available K200 mg/kg,exchangeable Ca 103-181 m mol/kg,exchan geable Mg 24-34 m mol/kg and the foliar nutritional indices of fruitful tree are N 2.0=2.5%,P2O5 0.14%,K2O1.5%,Ca 04.0%,and MgO 0.8%.Linear regressive equations were established for predicting the production and ferti lization.
Richards function was used as a basic model to study the non-intersection polymorphic site index curve,which solved the problem existed while the height of the tree was not uniform with the site index at standard age in plantations of Chinese fir and Masson pine.A practical site index substitution formula was worked out to get the site index according to the height and age of the tree.The problem that whether site index will chang at different standard age or not was discussed.Finally,a general discussion on properties of the polymorphic site index curve equation for Chinese fir was made.
Provenance test was carried out in 7 locations (latitude ranges from 21.9-31.8°N) in China in 1981.Seeds of loblolly pine (10 states) were obtained from natural range of the species in the USA.There was significant variation among different seed sources of loblolly pine in 8-year height,diameter and volume growth.In 4 locations,significant positive correlations were found between growth and mean annual temperature,mean minimum temperature of January,rainfall of June-September,and frost free season;a significant negative correlation was found between growth and latitude.The interaction of seed sources by locations was highly significant for height and volume growth.The best seed sources in southern and central subtropical regions of China were from the coastal regions of Florida,South Carolina and Louisiana (Livingston).For the northern subtropical region of China,the piedmont or inland seed sources were better than the coastal seed sources due to greater cold tolerance.
Segments of stem cutting from 1-5-and 10-year-old Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) were cultured in vitro on GN (NH4+:NO3-=1:2.86) medium containing BAP (0.75mg/l) and IBA (0.25mg/l).After four successive subculture lasted for one year,the results show that there is a great difference in yields of shoots and nursery stocks due to different ages of maternal plants of the explants.For example,an explant which was one year old obtained 170.3-445.7 shoots on average,including 78-194.9 efficient shoots.Among these shoots there were 11.1-25.1 shoots of 1 degree (advanced,able to be on subculture);36.1-87.9 shoots of 2 degree (moderate,able to be rooted) and 29.5-78.6 shoots of 3 degree (to be needed to subculture).And it is estimated that the yield of nursery stocks can reach 34.7 on average.With the increase of ages of maternal plants of the explants,the above data decreased.However,the yield of shoots per explant,5-and 10-year-old,was 4.1-234,3 because of an effect of rejuvenation in vitro as well as a great difference in shoot multiplication.Thus,there is a possibility in selecting rejuvenated cultures.Besides,this paper put forward a preliminary analysis on the effect of production of shoot multiplication.
The grafting technique of inducing-root from scion is reported in this paper.After grafting,we put some soil around the base of the seedling stock.Then the induced scion starts to root and grow up.Both the grafting survival and its rooting rate surpassed 70%.There are many merits in using this technique,i.e.the wound between scion and stock healed completely and the grafted tree grew well,the position of the crown is lower than that of the tree before and the scope of fruitness expands.The root could be induced from the base of the scion and there is no affinity between scion and stock in the later stage of its growth.This is a new technique in clone breeding of masson pine and it could be used in practice.
Drepanicae is a small family.About 400 species of it have been known in the world.Great part of their distributive origin is in East Asia.About 80 species have been recorded in China.24 species of 13 genera have been collected at Jianfengling in Hainan Island.Among them,there are 20 species first recorded in Hainan.Oreta、 Betalbara and Tridrepana are dominant genera;B.violacea (Butler)、O.angularis Watson、 Agnidra tanyospinosa Chu et Wang、 Hypsomadius insignis Butler、Paralbara muscularia (Walker) and Neoreta olga Swinhoe are dominant species.In the tropical mountain rain forest (among the four forest vegetation types),the numbers of the genera,species and populations are the most,it corresponds with the number of species of vascular plant in this type.Imagps appear in every month of a year at Jianfengling,but the peak months of imago emergence for the most species concentrate in January and February.
Moghania macrophylla (Willd.) O.Ktze.is a principal host plant of lac insect Kerria lacca (Kerr).it is distributed in Yunnan,Guizhou,Sichuan,Taiwan,Guangdong and Guangxi,Fujian Provinces and Autonomous Region.The results obtained from 1978 to 1982 show that Moghania macrophylla is a preferred host plant which has a wide adaptability and is easy to grow and propagate.It is a fast-growing shrub and can grow in dry and poor land.The suitable size of settlement of the insect on one tree is 30-40% in summer crop,and 25-30% in winter.The incrustation formed on this shrub appears light in colour and with considerable thickness.Besides,its soften ning point is rather high.The shrub has powerful rejuvenescence.A crop of shoots will sprout after crapping which can be used afresh for lac production.It is better than Pigeonpea (Cajanus caian) in this respect.
A study on the division of geographical producting area of populus bolleana was made through a series of investigations,including investigations on meteorological records of the past years,river system,altitude,chemical and physical properties of 306 soil profiles,average growth height of trees in 390 experimental plots etc.Among them,data of 11 factors were selected for analysis,they were: altitude,average annual temperature,average annual accumulated temperature ≥10℃,average annual rainfall and evaporation,amount of organic matter in soil,total salt,total N,total P,soil bulk density and average height of trees of 14-year-old,which were planted along both sides of the roads in 1-3 lines.These data were put to computation and calculated by fuzzy cluster method.The planting area of P.bolleana in Kashen District was divided into 4(Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ) geographical producting areas,among which the first two are the most productive ones.The result of the study will help develop the forestry in the District.
Genetic structures between and within 15 masson pine populat ions were studied by vertical and horizontal isozyme distributions in Fujian Province.The results indicated that there were great deviations among them with heterogeneity of allelic frequency being 0.357.Through genetic distance and gene division index analysis,it was discovered that there were more divergences among horizontal populations than among vertical ones.This paper also discussed the heterogeneity gradient along latitude and genetic deviation's maintenance.
The factors influencing the developmental rate of the pine caterpillar in Beijing area were studied and analysed.In this paper,a mathematical model of critical photoperiod was explorated,with emphasis on the influence of temperature and photoperiod,based on the experimental data.A diagram showing the variation of the developmental rate was given under various temperatures and photoperiods,The results may be able to provide some basis and convenience for forecasting the population dynamics of the pine caterpillar in the forest.
This paper deals with the spatial pattern of cocoon of Neödiprion xiangyunicus in the forest of Pinus yunnanesis.It was found that cocoons were distributed in the soil under crown projection.The pattern is an aggregated distribution.The fundamental unit is a single individual in the inte-rnal,internal inferor and outside layer of soil under crown projection.In the middle layer,the value of mean crowding for the distribution of the number of individuals per basic component is higher,the relative degree of aggregation in the distribution of basic component at low population densi-ties is the highest,and it decreases with the increase of population density.It is an aggregated distribution in all directions,the population density in the Orient is the highest,but it's lowest in the North,the degree of aggre-gation in the North is the highest,but it's lowest in the South.And in intertree,the pupal colonies are double colonies,the area of the small colony is about 10m2 with 5 trees of P.yunnanensis and the area of big one is about 30m2 with 15 trees.The small colony distributed uniformly among the bigger one,and the intertree spatial pattern of cocoon is random.
Indosasa albo-hispiula was often confused with Sinobambusa nephroaurita when outer morphology of their vegetative bodies was observed.Argument was that if they are two species under two different genera.Wood anatomical comparison revealed that there were distinct differences in the type of vascular bundle,epidermis,hypodermis and cortex between these two species,Besides,anatomical similarity existed between I.albo-hispiula and species in genus Indosasa Mc Clure,and S.nephroaurita and species in genus Sinobambusa Makino.The conclusion is that I.albo-hispiula should be put in genus Indosasa McClure and S.nephroaurita in genus Sinobambusa Makino.
Observations on flowering biological characteristics in 21 bamboo species within 6 genera have been made for more than 10 years in Anjie Bamboo Botanic Garden.The results were as follows:Some bamboo species formed blossom bud and flowered in the same year,some formed such bud in one year and flowered in the subsequent year.The blossom period of different bamboo species varied,which might be divided into two kinds,i.e.long blossom period and short blossom period.There was considerable variation in flowering performance of 21 bamboo species.When refer to the twigs bearing the flower,it might be divided into two types,one with leaves and another without leaves,and when refer to the location and time of flower generation,primary flowers and secondary flowers could be recognized.In Phyllostachys iridenscens and Ph.bambusoides,it took the anthers about 48 hours from protrusion to splitting,and for the stigmas from protrusion to withering less than 24 hours.The growth of the flowers was closely related to the weather conditions.The fruiting percentage of bamboo plants was generally low or even zero.Phyllostachys iridenscens as a species with higher fruitage ability,had a record of fruiting percentage of 6.1%.The anatomical results showed that high percentage of sterility was due to the withering of ovary and anther or insect damage in Pleioblastus amarus and other 7 bamboo species.77.7% of 337 flowers observed,were unfruitful.
A scientific research management computer system has been designed and established for the Department of Scientific Research Management in forestry.In order to make the system be widely used and the processing speed promoted,the authors adopted a series of useful measures in the system design and programming.The processing method for copying historical date mentioned in the paper is very useful for it can save the computer disk space and keep the historical data.
The water equilibrium and evapotranspiration have been deter mined in a Pinus tabulaeformis stand by regular measuring of soil water cont ent combined with hydrologic survey during the growing season in 1983 (May-Oct.).The results show that there is a balance between water income and water output in the experimental stand and evapotranspiration is the major way of water consumption in the stand.The major factor which influences the evapotranspiration rate is the soil water storage.The empirical equation established by step-wise regression analysis has been proved that it is available when predicting values are compared with the measuring values in 1984.