The diversity of nut traits in 8 wild populations and 2 cultivated populations of Amygdalus pedunculata was investigated to provide references for resource protection and utilization. The results indicated: (1) there were significant differences among and within populations. The morphological traits, such as nut length, nut weight, kernel ratio, had great morphological diversity with variation coefficient (CV). The range of nut weight varied from 0.18 to 0.81g with CV 26.19%. The range and CV of nut weight and kernel weight were the largest, and those of nut thickness and nut length/thickness were the smallest; (2) Correlation analysis revealed that nut width and nut length were positively correlated with the nut weight, with r=0.867 and 0.788 respectively. The kernel ratios in different ecotype were negatively regulated with thickness of shell, nut length and nut weight, with r=-0.455, -0.428 and -0.444, and positively correlated with nut thickness/width and kernel weight, with r=0.209 and 0.191; (3) The A. pedunculata genetic diversity reduced by artificial intervention, and high morphological variation was observed in nut phenotypic traits in the wild populations.