• 中国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科学引文数据库(CSCD)核心库来源期刊
  • 中国科技论文统计源期刊(CJCR)
  • 第二届国家期刊奖提名奖

Journal Introduction

Forestry Science Research is a comprehensive academic journal of forestry science sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Forestry Science. The main task is to timely reflect the latest research results, academic papers and reports, scientific and technological trends and information of forestry science with the Chinese Academy of Forestry as the main body, to promote academic exchanges at home and abroad, to carry out academic discussions, to prosper forestry science and to better serve China's forestry construction. The main contents are: forest seeds, seedling raising and afforestation, forest plants, forest genetic breeding, tree physiology and biochemistry, forest insects, resource insects, forest pathology, forest microorganisms, forest birds and animals, forest soil, forest...

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Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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The Interspecific Water Relations of Juglans Regia-Crop Agroforestry System in a Hilly Area of Southern Taihangshan Region
Chun-xia HE, Ping CHEN, Jin-song ZHANG, Ping MENG, Shou-jia SUN, Jun GAO
[Abstract](723) [FullText HTML](485) [PDF 1620KB](5)
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Objective The objective of this study is to find out the water relations (competition or facilitation) of various fruit-crop agroforestry systems and to provide theoretical basis for agroforestry configuration in southern Taihangshan region. Method In order to quantify the interspecific water relation, the stable carbon isotope technique and the thermal dissipation probe (TDP) method were used to study the water use efficiency (WUE), water consumption and soil water content of component species in a walnut (Juglans regia)-woad (Isatis tinctoria)/sickle senna (Senna tora) agroforestry system. Result The results showed that the soil water content of agroforestry system was greater than that of sole walnut, sole woad and sole sickle senna systems, and the sole walnut system had higher soil water content than sole crop systems. The WUE of woad system decreased with their growth, while that of sickle senna system increased with their growth in 2012, but decreased in 2013. The sole walnut and sole woad/sickle senna systems presented a larger water consumption than that in agroforestry system. The water consumption of sole walnut were respectively 1.11 and 1.07 times that of intercropped walnut in 2012 and 2013. The water consumption of sole woad and sole sickle senna systems were 1.83 and 2.26 times that of intercropped woad and intercropped sickle senna in 2012, and 1.96 and 2.60 times in 2013, respectively. Walnut consumed more water than the crops in agroforestry system in 2013, and the water use was equivalent between trees and crops in 2012. Woad and sickle senna in the tree row consumed more water than that at other places (but the water consumption of both the crops was slightly lower than in other places on flowering stage in 2013). The total income of the agroforestry system was respectively 1.49 and 1.24 times that of sole walnut and sole crop systems in 2012, and 1.24 and 1.47 times in 2013. Conclusion In these agroforestry systems, walnut improved water condition, and reduced total water consumption comparing to sole woad/sickle senna system. The land equivalent ratio of the agroforestry system achieved to 1.9. Although the production of walnut fruit decreased a little, the total income increased by 1.2 times comparing to sole systems when adding the income of the medicine harvest. It is concluded that walnut-woad/sickle senna intercropping system is suitable at this area.
Disturbances and Succession Laws of Main Natural Secondary Forests in Northeast China
Chao-fan ZHOU, Hui-ru ZHANG, Jun LU, Xiao-hong ZHANG
[Abstract](772) [FullText HTML](599) [PDF 768KB](25)
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Due to the excessive logging in the early stages, the natural forests in Northeast China were damaged to varying degrees, thus various types of secondary forests were formed. With the implementation of Natural Forest Protection Project, high-intensity commercial logging has been banned, so that most of the natural secondary forests in Northeast China have been restored to a certain content, but the whole process is slow. Understanding the succession law of secondary forest, using the ecological function of disturbance, and speeding up the succession process of the secondary forest through forest management measures has become the consensus of degraded secondary forest restoration. In this review, we introduce the ecological succession process of the main secondary forests derived from the three zonal top communities of Larix gmelinii forest, broadleaved Pinus koraiensis forest and Mountain spruce-fir forest in Northeast China, as well as the influence of interference on the succession process of secondary forests. It shows that artificial interferences may have both advantages and disadvantages on the succession of secondary forests, but most natural interferences are not conducive to the succession of secondary forests. Making good use of artificlal interferences such as logging, replanting and fire can effectively promote the succession process of secondary forests. Full cycle management of secondary forest successionandthe mechanism of natural disturbance on the succession of secondary forests in Northeast China is the focus of further research in the future.
Development of Volume-derived Biomass Models for Three Coniferous Forest Types in China
Wei-sheng ZENG
[Abstract](781) [FullText HTML](594) [PDF 1188KB](12)
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Objective : Stand-level biomass models/tables are important quantitative tools for implementing forest resources inventory and monitoring. Developing volume-derived biomass models for three coniferous forest types in China is not only an exploration of methodology, but also provides reference for practice. Method Based on field measurement data of 3000 sample plots from three coniferous forest types (Larix spp., Pinus tabulaeformis and Cunninghamia lanceolata) in China, the volume-derived biomass models were developed through ordinary regression (OR), weighted regression (WR), and segmented modeling (SM) approaches; and the relevant published models were compared. Result The coefficients of determination (R2) of the volume-derived biomass models for the three coniferous forest types based on WR approach were between 0.912~0.937, the mean prediction errors (MPEs) were between 0.93%~1.58%, the total relative errors (TREs) were within ± 2.0%, and the TREs for validation were within ± 2.6%. The R2 values of the models based on SM approach were between 0.915~0.953, the MPEs were between 0.81%~1.55%, the TREs were within ± 0.3%, and the TREs for validation were within ± 1.3%. Using the data of this study to test the applicability of the relevant published biomass models for the three coniferous forest types, the TREs were 11.62%, −25.19% and −6.26%, respectively, and the errors for different biomass classes were quite higher, even systematic deviations appeared, and seriously exceeded the allowable error. Conclusion The stand-level biomass per hectare is linearly related to volume stock. The WR approach should be used preferentially when developing volume-derived biomass models, and the sample plots should be much enough and evenly distributed. When one model is not enough to obtain accurate estimates for different biomass classes perfectly, the SM approach can be used. The volume-derived biomass models developed in this study have low MPEs, indicating that they can be applied in practice.
Outer Upper Crown Profile Simulation and Visualization for Cunninghamia lanceolata Based on UAV-borne LiDAR Data
Zhi-yang XU, Hao-dong LIU, Yong-fu CHEN, Qiao CHEN, Hua-yu LI, Juan WANG
[Abstract](795) [FullText HTML](702) [PDF 1286KB](24)
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Objective To obtain the upper crown structure parameters (crown vertex, tree height, crown width and upper crown length) and to simulate and visualize the outer upper crown profile of Cunninghamia lanceolata based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) LiDAR data in order to provide reference for recognizing the individual tree crown characteristics and tree species. Method By means of local maximum method in LiDAR360 software, the Pit-Free CHM (canopy height model), which was generated from LiDAR point clouds by LASTools open source software, was used to detect the crown vertex. Then point clouds segmentation based on CHM seed points was carried out with the use of the previous crown vertex. After that, the individual tree point clouds was selected in ArcGIS software manually, and the samples of less segmentation were purified automatically by python programming (the entire following work was done automatically by programming), then the individual tree point clouds data was ready. Secondly, the upper crown structure parameters (crown vertex, tree height, crown width and upper crown length) were extracted from purified individual tree point clouds. Thirdly, according to certain interval, the purified individual tree point clouds were hierarchically sliced to get two outer upper crown profile parameters (relative depth into the crown of interest, branch length) as model variables by width percentile method. By the way of stratified relative depth into the crown of interest, the abnormal outer upper crown profile parameters of modeling and validation samples were removed according to the method of 3 times standard deviation respectively. Three candidate basic models, quadratic polynomial, power function and exponential function, were selected for model fitting and verification. Finally, the optimal fitting model was used to visualize the 3D scene at the sample plot scale. Result The results showed that the accuracy of tree detection was 79.63%. The correlation of the extracted values to the measured data was analysed. The R2 of tree height, crown radius was 0.890 5 and 0.845 6. The fitting R2 of the three models were 0.807 0, 0.817 0, and 0.806 0, respectively. The power function fitted the outer upper crown profile for C. lanceolata better. Conclusion For performing tree species crown shape correctly, it is of great importance to get and purify the individual tree point clouds effectively on the condition that the stand density is very high. The outer upper crown profile model for C. lanceolata based on UAV-LiDAR can perform the crown shape well. It can provide a useful basis for the recognization of C. lanceolata.
Site Classes Grouping Method Based on Quantile Regression of Chinese Fir Plantations
Bo ZHANG, Ke-yi CHEN, Lai ZHOU, Sajjad Saeed, Ya-xin ZHANG, Yu-jun SUN
[Abstract](771) [FullText HTML](617) [PDF 673KB](8)
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Objective To optimize the efficiency of the site classes grouping strategy and improve the accuracy of site classification, site classes grouping model and to propose a site quality evaluation method based on quantile regression model. Method The traditional methods (standard deviation adjustment method) and quantile regression method were used to classify and evaluate the site quality of 418 pure Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) forests at Jiangle Forest Farm in Sanming City, Fujian Province, and the results were compared. The baseline age (A0) was determined based on the high growth of the stand tree and the maturity of the Chinese fir plantations. Using standard deviation adjustment method and according to the standard age tree height value and exponential interval, the site classes curve cluster was constructed and divided into 8 levels. The quantile regression method was based on the guiding curve. According to the data distribution characteristics, 8 quantile points (0.01, 0.05, 0.15, 0.30, 0.70, 0.85, 0.95, and 0.99) were specified to construct the quantile regression model, and the quantile curves were used to divide the site classes. Result The results showed that the quantile regression model could quickly and accurately determine the site type of the pure Chinese fir plantation, based on the principle that the sum of squares (or the absolute value of the difference) between the average stand height and the prediction stand height of each site class curves is the smallest. The evaluation results of the site quality were not significantly different from the traditional methods. Conclusion The quantile regression model describes, classifies, regresses, predicts and verifies the correlation between stand growth and site quality from the perspective of data. The quantile regression curve cluster, based on the guided growth model, intuitively reflect the stand high changing under the different site class, so as to comprehensively and accurately predict the productivity of Chinese fir plantations.
Influence of Plant Community Characteristics on Bird Habitat of Wader in Tianfu National Wetland Park, Jiangsu Province
Jun-xue SHAO, Xin-xin HU, Xin LI, Ting-ting ZHOU, Yu-qing FENG, Ning LIU, Min-jun ZHOU, Dong XIE
[Abstract](770) [FullText HTML](542) [PDF 727KB](8)
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Objective To study the seasonal variation of habitat plant community characteristics and its influence mechanism on wader community in order to provide support for bird habitat management. Method From July 2019 to July 2020, the data of plant community characteristic were collected by sample method and the data of wader community were collected by line transect method in the bird habitat of Tianfu National Wetland Park, and regression model was established to study the influence mechanism by transforming variables. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CLA) were used to classify the wader. Result The results of statistical analysis of the data collected from the bird habitat in Tianfu National Wetland Park showed that: (1) A total of 77 species of 72 genera and 30 families of herbaceous plants were recorded, and 230 waders of 18 species were recorded. (2) The ratio of plant community height to vegetation coverage was significantly positively correlated with the ratio of the total number of birds to the total number of wader. (3) The response degree of different functional traits of wader to the seasonal variation of plant community characteristics was different. Based on PCA and CLA, the waders were divided into 4 bird groups, among which the wader species of group 4 (medium-wing-length, medium-rictus and medium-tarsometatarsus) were more sensitively affected by the seasonal variation of plant community characteristics than the other bird groups. (4) At present, the management measures of Tianfu National Wetland Park Conservation and Management Center for all plant communities belong to non-differentiated disturbance. Conclusion The results show that the plant community characteristics of bird habitat in Tianfu National Wetland Park has significant effects on the community characteristics of wader, and the influencing mechanisms are different among different wader groups. The non-differentiated habitat management measures in the study area should be improved according to the vegetation community succession rules and the habitat requirements of the wader with different traits. It is suggested that the habitat management should accurately manage the characteristics of different plant communities according to the different habitat needs of different wader groups. it is also suggested to increase different types of habitat management measures.
Genetic Differentiation and Genetic Diversity of Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis and H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis
Tian-yi WANG, Yue XU, Luo-yun WANG, Jian-guo ZHANG, Yan-fei ZENG
[Abstract](939) [FullText HTML](660) [PDF 900KB](6)
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Objective To evaluate the genetic differentiation between Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis and H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis, to clarify their geographic boundary in ambiguous areas, and estimate the genetic diversity within each taxon. Method 18 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) makers were used to analyze the genetic variation of 32 H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis and H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis populations. Phylogenetic analysis and cluster analysis were conducted to identify the grouping of these populations according to their morphology and geographic distribution. The genetic differentiation coefficients were calculated among populations within each taxon, and the Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) was conducted to estimate the variance components at different levels. The genetic diversity parameters, such as allele number (NA), effective allele number (NE), observed heterozygosity (HO), expected heterozygosity (HE) and inbreeding coefficient (FIS), were calculated for each taxon and each population. Result The genetic diversity of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis was higher than that of H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis. Compared with H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis, H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis had lower genetic differentiation coefficients between populations; and AMOVA analysis found that the percentage of variance among populations within taxa was lower in H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis (25.5%) than in H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis (36.7%), suggesting that the differentiation among geographical populations of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis was lower than that of H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis, and the genetic variation of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis was mainly between individuals. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all individuals of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis mainly clustered into one clade, while several highly differed clades were found in H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis, and the subsp. sinensis was closer with Sichan subsp. yunnanensis clade than with others. By population genetic cluster analysis, all H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis and H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis individuals were divided into two major branches, and hybridization between them were found in several populations, especially in populations Hongyuan and Songpan that located in northern Sichuan province. Conclusion H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis has higher genetic diversity and lower genetic differentiation than that of H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis. Hongyuan and Songpan counties in northern Sichuan province are most likely to be the distribution boundary between H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis and H. rhamnoides subsp. yunnanensis.
The Relationships between the Dust-holding Capacity and the Leaf Surface Structure & Particle Size in Five Evergreen Tree Species Locates in Hangzhou
Hai-mei LI, Ning DANG, Liang-qian YU, Han-dan ZHANG, Guang-cai CHEN
[Abstract](589) [FullText HTML](531) [PDF 1186KB](5)
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Objective To study the relationship between leaf dust retention capacity and leaf surface structure and particle characteristics of landscaping tree species so as provide data for screening excellent landscaping tree species and improving the dust retention effect of vegetation. Method Five common evergreen tree species (Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum, Osmanthus fragrans, Pittosporum tobira, Photinia × fraseri and Cinnamomum camphora) in Fuyang District of Hangzhou were studied. The samples were collected from industrial zone, traffic zone and clean zone. The dust-holding capacity of these plants was recorded by weight difference method, the leaf surface structure, particle morphological structure and elemental composition of dust were observed by SEM-EDS. The relationship between leaf surface structure, particle morphology, particle size and dust holding capacity was analyzed. Result The results showed that the leaf dust retention capacity of the five tree species in the industrial area followed the order of L. chinense var. rubrum (7.36 g·m−2) > O. fragrans (6.53 g·m−2) > Pittosporum tobira (6.44 g·m−2) > Photinia × fraseri (4.28 g·m−2) > C. camphora (2.59 g·m−2), and the same pattern was observed in traffic zone and clean zone. The total PM10 retention amount of these tree species reached to 11.34 g·m−2, the order of retention capacity of these tree species was L. chinense var. rubrum, Pittosporum tobira, Photinia × fraseri, O. fragrans and C. camphora. The air quality in these zones showed obvious effect on the leaf retention capacity, followed the order of industrial zone > traffic zone > clean zone. The particles trapped in plant leaves consisted of regular particles and irregular mineral particles, which mainly included spherical, oval, fluffy polymer, chain polymer, irregular block and irregular sheet. Conclusion L. chinense var. rubrum shows the strongest dust-retention ability, while C. camphora shows the weakest retention of particulate matter. The percentage of coarse particles trapped in the leaves are higher than that of the fine particles. The particles trapped in leaves are mostly soot aggregates and minerals particles
Study on the Early Growth Characteristics of Kandelia candel Plantation in Yanpu Bay, Cangnan, Zhejiang Province
Hong-yun LAI, Yong-xue WANG, YI-han ZHANG, Hai LIANG, Song-li YU, Kai ZHANG, Li-yuan ZHANG, Bo-nian SHUI
[Abstract](681) [FullText HTML](584) [PDF 834KB](5)
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Objective To compare the growth differences of Kandelia candel from the three provenances of Jiulongjiang and Yunxiao of Fujian Province and Shenzhen of Guangdong Province, and improve the seedling procurement and selection techniques of suitable forest land. Method Based on data from 7 sample plots, analysis of variance, multiple comparison and regression analysis were used to study the relationship between the height of Kandelia candel and the ground diameter and number of leaves. Result There were some differences in the growth of Kandelia candel in 7 sample plots, the average plant height, ground diameter and number of leaves of plot A (the landward forest land) were larger than those in plot D (the seaward forest land); the growth of plot C (the non-tidal gully forest land) was better than that in plot B (the middle landward forest land adjacent to tidal gully); and the growth of Kandelia candel in plot E (in the Spartina alterniflora region) was worse than that in plot A. The binary linear regression model of plant height, ground diameter and leave number was proved to be Y = −2.941 + 26.785X1 + 0.047X2 (R2 = 0.872, P < 0.01), the binary nonlinear regression model was proved to be Y = −356.815 + 26.396X1 + 340.407X20.01 (MS = 0.875, P < 0.01), and the unary linear regression model of plant height and ground diameter was proved to be Y = −48.961 + 89.203X1 − 23.88X12 + 2.548X13 (R2 = 0.941, P < 0.01), the unitary nonlinear model was proved to be Y = 289.888X1/(X1 + 8.913)(MS = 3.626, P < 0.01). The Kandelia candel provenance from Yunxiao was more suitable for introduction in Yanpu Bay than the other two provenances. Conclusion It is suggested that Kandelia candel forest land should be selected in the tidal zone with weak hydrodynamic force, and the habitat should be properly modified before planting in tidal ditch edge to reduce the impact of tidal current. It will take a long time to plant Kandelia candel after the Spartina alterniflora areas are cleared. Measures should be taken to reduce the stress of defaced organisms such as tide and barnacle when afforestation is carried out at the margin of marine forest. It is advisable to purchase seedlings from provenances whose climate is similar to that of the proposed planting area.
Effects of Harvesting Intensity on Fine Root Biomass and Morphological Characteristics of Mixed Plantations of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Broadleaved Trees
Zhi-long WU, Cheng-jun ZHOU, Xin-nian ZHOU, Fu-wan LIU, Wen CHEN, Jian-hua LAN
[Abstract](649) [FullText HTML](501) [PDF 604KB](6)
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Objective To compare the differences in fine root biomass and morphological characteristics of mixed plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata and broadleaved trees under different harvesting intensities, reveal the relationship between fine root growth and harvesting intensity, and provide basic data and theoretical references for the management of regional mixed plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata and broadleaved trees. Method A mixed plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata and broadleaved trees in northern Fujian Province in China was used as the research object. Selective harvesting at medium intensity (34.6% removal of growing stock volume), high intensity (48.6%), at extra-high intensity (67.6%), and clear-cut harvesting (100%) were conducted and non-cutting as the control in August 2011. After 5 years of natural recovery, the basic data of biomass and morphological characteristics of living fine root (≤ 2 mm) of tree species were collected from two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) via root drilling methods. The influence of harvesting intensity on the total biomass and morphological characteristics of fine root in the 0-20 cm soil layer was analyzed. Result For the total fine root biomass, non-cutting, selective harvesting at medium and high intensities were 219.35, 225.31 and 257.96 g·m−2, there was no significant difference among them (P > 0.05). But the total fine root biomass under selective harvesting at extra-high intensity and clear-cut harvesting were significantly reduced by 47.0% and 66.3% respectively compared with non-cutting (P < 0.05). For the specific root length and specific root surface area, there was no significant difference between selective harvesting at various intensities and non-cutting (P > 0.05). The specific root length and specific root surface area under clear-cut harvesting were significantly increased by 41.5% and 71.2% respectively compared with non-cutting (P < 0.05). The changes of root length density and root surface area density with harvesting intensity increasing were consistent with their change of total fine root biomass. The root length density and root surface area density under selective harvesting at extra-high intensity were significantly reduced by 51.9% and 46.9% respectively compared with non-cutting (P < 0.05). The root length density and root surface area density under clear-cut harvesting were significantly reduced by 54.9% and 49.2% respectively compared with non-cutting (P < 0.05). Conclusion 5 years after harvesting, the fine root biomass and the ability to absorb water and nutrients of the mixed plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata and broadleaved trees can be maintained under selective harvesting at medium and high intensities, but will be significantly reduced under selective harvesting at extra-high intensity and clear-cut harvesting. From the perspective of effectively maintaining and promoting the growth of fine roots of forest trees, it is recommended that suitable harvesting intensity of similar forests should not exceed the selective harvesting at high intensity.
miRNAs Analysis of Poplar Root Tips Treated with Nitrate- or Ammonium-Nitrogen
Dong-xu KAN, Yan LU, Jiang-ting WU, Xin CHEN, Wen-guang SHI, Jing ZHOU
[Abstract](998) [FullText HTML](692) [PDF 936KB](4)
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Objective To screen the differentially expressed miRNAs from root tips of poplar through small RNAs high-throughput sequencing technology, to study the regulation mechanism of miRNAs and their target genes related to nitrate or ammonium responses and try to identify and explain the morphological characteristics of poplar root tips growth and development. Method Using root tips of poplar as the research object, the high-throughput sequencing technology for small RNA library construction was applied to reveal the genetic differences of nitrogen forms in miRNA level, and to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs. Meanwhile, degradation sequencing technology was used to identify the miRNA target genes, and the functional annotation, clustering and metabolic pathway enrichment of the differentially expressed target genes were analyzed. Through conjoint analysis, the regulation network of miRNA-target pairs in the root tips of poplar was clarified under different nitrogen forms treatments. Result 523 known and 42 novel miRNAs were identified from miRNA libraries. A total of 96 miRNAs with significantly different expression were identified. Under ammonium treatment, 44 miRNAs were upregulated and 52 downregulated. Among them, the upregulation of vvi-MIR399d-p3_1ss13GA and the downregulation of novel miRNA PC-5p-35885_222 were the most significant. The KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed target genes of miRNAs in the libraries showed that some significantly different expression target genes were involved in nitrogen response pathway. Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR confirmed 7 randomly selected miRNA-target pairs, and the results were consistent with the sequencing data. Conclusion miRNAs and their target genes may play important roles in nitrogen response of poplar root tips after treatments with different forms of nitrogen, thus the root length under nitrate-nitrogen treatment is almost twice that under ammonium-nitrogen treatment.
Cloning, Expression and Protein Interaction of ThSHR3 Genes in Taxodium hybrid ‘Zhongshanshan406’
Lei XUAN, Zhi-quan WANG, Yun-long YIN, Jian-feng HUA
[Abstract](1059) [FullText HTML](777) [PDF 1084KB](6)
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Objective To obtain the SHORT-ROOT 3 gene (ThSHR3) from Taxodiumhybrid 'Zhongshanshan 406' by cloning and to identify and analyze its characteristics and related functions based on proteome and transcriptome data of adventitious roots of Taxodium hybrid 'Zhongshanshan406'. Method The full length of ThSHR3 gene was cloned by RACE technology and the bioinformatics characteristics were analyzed by bioinformatics software. Semi-quantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR were used to detect the expression characteristics of ThSHR3. The subcellular localization of ThSHR3 protein was confirmed by transient expression of protoplasts, and the protein interaction of ThSHR3 was verified by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technique. Result The authors assembled a full-length of ThSHR3 gene, which consists of 2 019 bp nucleotide sequence, containing a 1 446 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 482 amino acid proteins. ThSHR3 protein has conserved GRAS domains in the C-terminal, such as LHRI, VHIID, LHRII, PFYRE and SAW. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ThSHR3 belongs to the SHR subfamily. ThSHR3 gene showed a gradually increased expression pattern in the development of adventitious root. Transient expression analysis of protoplasts showed that ThSHR3 protein was located in the nucleus. Further BiFC experiment revealed that ThSHR3 protein and ThSCR protein which also belongs to GRAS protein family can interact with each other in nucleus. Conclusion This study indicates that ThSHR3 plays an important role in regulating the development of adventitious roots of Taxodium hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 406'.
Study on Phenotypic Variations of Elite Trees in Natural Populations of Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. sinensis Rousi in Shanxi
Xue-bin GUO
[Abstract](194) [FullText HTML](150) [PDF 694KB](3)
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Objective To study the variation of phenotypic traits and the relationship with ecological factors in natural population of Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. sinensis Rousi in Shanxi Province, so as to provide technical support for germplasm resource collection, preservation and breeding of H. rhamnoides. Method 10 phenotypic traits were investigated for 110 superior individuals in 11 natural populations of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis from Shanxi, China. The phenotypic variation among populations was studied using analysis of variance, coefficient of variation. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to classify the population. Result The correlation analysis revealed the correlation between ecological factors and phenotypic traits. The results showed that 10 phenotypic traits of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis were significant (p < 0.05) or extremely significant (p < 0.01) among elite trees of different populations. The average variation coefficient of elite trees in natural populations was 5.23% ~ 37.42%. There were significant positive correlations (p < 0.01) between the transverse and longitudinal diameter of fruit, the weight of a hundred fruits, the thousand-grain weight of seed and the branch length of the current year, while negatively correlated with fruit shape index and fruiting density (p < 0.01). The thousand-grain weight was positively correlated with the transverse and longitudinal diameter of fruit, and the weight of a hundred fruits (p < 0.01). Fruit shape index, fruit stalk length, branch length of the current year and latitude factor were extremely significantly (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated; the transverse and longitudinal diameter of fruit, the weight of a hundred fruits, the thousand-grain weight of seed, the branch length of the current year and altitude factor showed a extremely significant (p < 0.01) and positive correlation. The results of principal component analysis showed that the comprehensive score of elite trees in Xixian population was the highest, while that of Wuzhai population was the lowest. The cluster analysis was carried out using Euclidean distance between populations, and the elite trees of 11 populations were divided into 4 groups. The results revealed the phenotypic traits of elite trees of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis in Shanxi did not form the rule of continuous variation, and had the characteristics of random variation. Conclusion There are abundant phenotypic variations among elite trees in natural populations of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis in Shanxi. The comprehensive traits of elite trees in Xixian populations are the best, which can be referred to as a key area for collection of elite germplasm resources of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis.
Genetic Relationship Analysis and Fingerprint Construction of Carya illinoensis Varieties
Xu-dong HE, Ji-wei ZHENG, Xue-yao TIAN, Zhong-yi JIAO, Quan-qin DOU
[Abstract](917) [FullText HTML](674) [PDF 667KB](8)
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Objective Since the morphological appearances among pecan (Carya illinoensis) varieties are extremely similar due to the narrow genetic basis of the crossing parents, making it difficult to precisely identify by phenotypic characters only, this study aims at elucidating the genetic relationships and constructing fingerprint among pecan varieties, and establishing a rapid, efficient, stable, and accurate genotyping system for pecan based on fluorescent SSR markers combining high throughput capillary electrophoresis technology. Method A total of 54 SSR primers were selected from pecan and related species for preliminary screening and ten of them were labeled by fluorophore for further analysis. 25 pecan varieties were genotyped by capillary electrophoresis, and the number of allele (A) and polymorphic information content (PIC) of each locus was scored and calculated by software. The fingerprint of pecan varieties was constructed using different combination of SSR markers and the genetic relationships among varieties were also investigated through cluster analysis. Result A total of 68 alleles were detected by ten pairs of SSR markers with an average of 6.8 alleles. The most (12 alleles) were screened at the Cc19 locus and the least (3 alleles) were obtained at the BFU-Jr locus. The polymorphic information content varied with locus from 0.2910 to 0.8435 (mean 0.5883). With the four optimal pairs of core primers, all of the 25 pecan varieties could be completely distinguished by the primer combinations of Cc19, PM-GA31, PM-CIN4, and PM-GA41. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the similarity coefficient of the 25 pecan varieties varied from 0.62 to 0.99. Two main clades were formed, in which some related varieties could be clustered together and some of them could not be completely corresponding with genetic background. Conclusion Compared with traditional dominant markers and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the genotyping technology consisting of fluorescence-labeled SSR primers and capillary electrophoresis is quite practical with high throughput, fast speed, and stable and reliable result. The different varieties can be efficiently identified by the combination of core markers. In order to deeply reveal the real architecture of genetic relationship among pecan varieties, it is suggested that more crossing parents should be added and a certain number of more efficient markers covered the whole genome need to be selected during the analysis of genetic relationship.
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2021, 34(3): -1--1.  
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2021, (3): 0-0.  
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Identification of Nitrate Transporter Gene Family PeNPFs and Their Expression Analysis in Phyllostachys edulis
Ting-ting YUAN, Cheng-lei ZHU, Ke-bin YANG, Xin-zhang SONG, Zhi-min GAO
2021, 34(3): 1-12.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.001
[Abstract](1600) [FullText HTML](849) [PDF 1390KB](47)
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Objective To identify the members of nitrate transporter (NPF) gene family in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and systematically analyze their molecular characteristics and expression patterns, in order to lay the foundation for in-depth study of the nitrate transport function of the NPF genes in Moso bamboo. Method Bioinformatics methods were used to identify NPF family gene members in the genome of Moso bamboo, a comprehensive analysis of acting elements in their promoters, gene structure, physical and chemical properties of their encoded proteins, conserved domains and systematic evolution was performed. The tissue specific expression of NPF genes in different tissues of Moso bamboo and their expression patterns after different abiotic stress and hormone treatments were analyzed using the existing transcriptome data. Result A total of 27 NPF genes (PeNPF1.1~PeNPF8.8) were identified in Moso bamboo, and their gene structure was found to be quite different. The number of intron was 2~5. The longest coding region was 2286 bp (PeNPF7.4) and the shortest was 1359 bp (PeNPF8.8). The regulatory element analysis showed that a variety of elements related to abiotic stresses such as cold and drought, as well as hormonal responses such as GA3 and NAA were identified in the promoter region of PeNPFs. The molecular weight of the proteins encoded by PeNPFs ranged from 49.56~82.08 kDa, with the isoelectric point (pI) of 5.17~9.85. Most PeNPFs were neutral or basic proteins with similar transmembrane structures. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PeNPFs were clustered into 7 subfamilies, and the numbers of members in each subfamily were 1, 3, 1, 6, 1, 7 and 8, respectively. Analysis of protein conserved motifs showed that there was a total of 10 conserved motifs in PeNPFs, of which motif 1, motif 2 and motif 4 were highly conserved motifs shared by all members. The expression profile heat map analysis based on transcriptome data demonstrated that the expression of PeNPFs had certain differences in different tissues such as leaves, inflorescences, roots, rhizomes and shoots, among which each member was detected in at least one tissue, and some members exhibited tissue-specific or constitutive expression. After cold and drought treatments, the expression of PeNPF5.3, PeNPF7.2, PeNPF7.3 and PeNPF8.7 showed significant down-regulation, which was consistent with the presence of cold and drought response regulatory elements in their promoter sequences. After GA3 and NAA treatments, PeNPF7.3 and PeNPF7.6 demonstrated opposite expression changes, while the expression trend of PeNPF7.1 was similar. Conclusion There are 27 members of NPF gene family in Moso bamboo, which can be divided into 7 subfamilies. The molecular characteristics and tissue expression specificity of each member in different subfamilies have certain differences, and the expression changes of some PeNPFs in response to abiotic stress and hormone treatments have reached the level of significant differences. These expression profiles suggest that PeNPFs might play different functions in the transport of nitrate in different tissues of bamboo and in the process of dealing with different environments. These findings could be references for understanding the biological functions of PeNPFs in Moso bamboo.
Forest and Grass Fire Risk Assessment for Central Asia under Future Climate Scenarios
Xue-zheng ZONG, Xiao-rui TIAN, Yun-he YIN
2021, 34(3): 13-22.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.002
[Abstract](2073) [FullText HTML](1061) [PDF 1012KB](42)
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Objective To assess the effects of climate change on forest and grass fire risk in Central Asia. Method An index was built to assess the wildfire risk in Central Asia based on wildfire possibility, vulnerability and exposure. The modified Nesterov index (MNI) was used to calculate the fire weather index of the region based on daily precipitation, mid-day temperature, and dew point. The authors used HadGEM2-ES global climate model with four scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5) to project the fire weather index of Central Asia. The vulnerability was calculated with burn probability and vegetation types. The authors also projected the exposure in the future with population and GDP distributions under three climate scenarios (SSP1, SSP2, and SSP3). A fire risk index was established by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP), which combined with possibility, vulnerability and exposure. Result The results showed that the areas with high and very high ratings on wildfire risk would account for 47.2% during 2021—2050, which increase by 16.9% over the baseline. The areas with high and very high risks would increase by 12.4%, 18.6%, 13.6%, and 20.4% under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 scenarios in 2021—2050, respectively. The wildfire risk would also increase during 2071—2099 period. The areas with high and very high risks would be 53.1%, which would be an increase of 22.9% compared with the baseline. It would increase by 11.1%, 22.4%, 24.6%, and 32.9% for RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Conclusion The areas with high and very high risk under the RCP2.6 scenario in 2021—2050 period will be larger than that of 2071—2099 period. While the areas with high and very high risk under the RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 scenarios in 2071—2099 period will be less than that of2021—2050 period. The areas with high and very high risks will significantly increase in the future. The key areas for fire management should include the west grassland, mountain forests and shrubs in south.
Genome-wide Identification of PLD Gene Family of Populus trichocarpa and Its Responses to Salt Stress
Cong LIU, Yang ZHANG, De-an XIA, Xue-bing CHEN, Zhi-gang WEI
2021, 34(3): 23-36.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.003
[Abstract](1907) [FullText HTML](1081) [PDF 1279KB](49)
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Objective To analyze the pressure of selection in the evolution of PLD gene family in the woody model plant Populus trichocarpa, the cis-acting elements in the promoter, the tissue expression characteristics, and the expression pattern under salt stress in order to provide references for mining the role of PtrPLD in abiotic stress. Method Using Arabidopsis PLD gene family protein sequence alignment to obtain the P. trichocarpa genome homologous gene, and then identify the PtrPLD gene after the conserved domain identification; using the software ClustalW and MEGA to perform the amino acid sequence alignment and systematic evolution analysis of the PtrPLD and AtPLD genes; using MEME, Plant-mPLoc, ExPasy and other software tools to analyze the characteristics of PtrPLD genes and encoded proteins; using Tbtools software to analyze homologous genes and Ka/Ks values; using Plantcare online tools to analyze the cis-acting elements in the promoter of PtrPLD; using Phytozome transcriptome database and qRT-PCR to analyze the PtrPLD tissue expression characteristics; and using qRT-PCR to analyze the PtrPLD response to salt stress in each tissue. Result The results show that the PtrPLD family can be divided into 2 subfamilies, C2-PLD and PX/PH-PLD, which containing 13 and 3 genes respectively. There are 7 pairs of paralogous genes and the Ka/Ks between them is far less than 1. The promoter region of PtrPLD family genes contains a large number of abiotic stress and hormone response elements, among which the PtrPLDδ4 promoter contains 20 elements. The PtrPLD family of encoded proteins all contain Motif 1-4, and the sequences on the same evolutionary branch of the evolutionary tree are highly conserved. Analysis of the expression characteristics showed that the PtrPLD family genes have specific expression in roots, stems and leaves, and most members are mainly expressed in the roots. Under NaCl stress, the expression level of PtrPLD family genes in the roots, stems and leaves showed a trend of up-down-up within 72 hours. Conclusion The results show that the PtrPLD family genes play an important role in the response of P. trichocarpa to salt stress. This study will promote the identification of the biological functions of PtrPLD family genes and the mining of genetic resources in response to abiotic stress.
Cloning and Expression Analysis of MlCYP734A6 in Musella lasiocarpa
Jing AN, You-ming WAN, Hong MA, Xiong-fang LIU, Xiu-jiao ZHANG, Yu-rong CAO, Zheng-hong LI
2021, 34(3): 37-45.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.004
[Abstract](1696) [FullText HTML](870) [PDF 1321KB](36)
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Objective To provide data in molecular-level for revealing the regulatory role of MlCYP734A6 in the growth and development of Musella lasiocarpa. Method The 3′ and 5′ RACE technology was used to clone the full length cDNA of MlCYP734A6 gene. The software of bioinformatics was used to analyze the nucleotides and protein sequence. Real-time PCR method was used to analyze the gene expression level in different types and tissues of Musella lasiocarpa. HPLC-MS/MS was used to detect the brassinolide content in different tissues. Result The full length cDNA of MlCYP734A6 is 1 584 bp, encoding 527 amino acids. The relative molecular mass of coding protein is 60 038.84 Da and the isoelectric point is 6.61. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of MlCYP734A6 had the closest evolutionary relationship with the CYP734A6 protein of Musa acuminata subsp. malaccensis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that MlCYP734A6 could be detected in all tissues. The two tissues with the highest expression level were rachis and root tip, and the lowest expression level was in leaf. No significant correlation was found between the brassinolide content and the expression pattern of MlCYP734A6, and excessive brassinosteroids in RD05 was a possible cause of dwarfed phenotype. Conclusion The study indicated that MlCYP734A6 may participate in the metabolism of brassinosteroids, and balance the bioactive brassinosteroids content in Musella lasiocarpa. These results provide further theoretical support for the role of CYP734As in plant growth and development in the future.
Effects of Crucibulum laeve Inoculation on Metabolome in Root Exudate from Salix viminalis L.
Xiao-dong MA, Xia LI, Jun-zhu ZOU, Yuan-yuan BAI, Zhen-yuan SUN, Lei HAN
2021, 34(3): 46-55.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.005
[Abstract](1145) [FullText HTML](903) [PDF 1239KB](28)
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Objective To study the effects of plant/white rot fungi (WRF) inoculation on rhizosphere soil metabolome in root exudate of plants cultivated in PAH-contaminated soil. Method A pot experiment was conducted in greenhouse for bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils and Salix viminalis L. was used as phytoremediation materials. Based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and metabolomics method, the test was focused on comparing the effect of inoculating Crucibulum laeve on metabolic profiling of rhizosphere PAH-contaminated soil of S. viminalis. Result Under POS and NEG mode, 881 and 823 compounds were detected and identified in metabolic profiling, respectively. Among them, 18 compounds were identified and assumed to be potential root exudates components. The component variety and content of rhizosphere metabolites were remarkably reduced by C. laeve inoculating, which including 16 root exudate components. Conclusion In this study, it is showed that inoculation with WRF can promote the uptake capability of roots to a broad spectrum of soil compounds. It is speculated that the response of plant roots to WRF stimulating leads to the improvement of PAHs phytoextraction capacity. This is of great significance for revealing the mechanism of plant/WRF combination remediation of PAH-contaminated soils.
Investigation on Host Range, Host Resistance Substances of Bacterial Bark Canker of Populus × euramericana
Yong LI, Ju-pu CHANG, Li-min GUO, Shang SUN, Xu-qi YANG, Chun-gen PIAO
2021, 34(3): 56-63.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.006
[Abstract](978) [FullText HTML](710) [PDF 628KB](16)
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Objective This Research is to investigate the host range of bacterial canker of Populus × euramericana, the resistant varieties and its possible resistant substances. Method The host range of the pathogen and the resistant varieties were determined by field investigation and inoculation tests. The content of active substances in the bark of resistant and susceptible varieties was analyzed by HPLC. Result The host of bacterial pathogen of Populus × euramericana canker are Populus deltoides, Populus × euramericana and Salix matsudana. Zhonglin 46, 2025, 2001, 313, Zhonghe-1 and 16-09 were highly susceptible to the bark canker disease; Yukang 1 and 16-10 were highly resistant varieties, 131, 03-59, 02-212 and 03-34 were resistant varieties. Hybrid willows and Salix babylonica are resistant to the pathogen, and Salix × aureo-pendula can be affected, but do not cause serious disease. The HPLC analysis showed that the contents of catechol, benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid in the bark of resistant and highly susceptible poplar varieties were significantly different. The catechol and catechin increased when the hosts were infected by L. populi. Conclusion In this study, the host range of bacterial canker of Populus × euramericana were determined, and resistant and highly susceptible poplar varieties were screened, and the catechol and catechin are important compound for host to defense the pathogen infection. The results will be helpful to the control of the bacterial disease of poplar.
Stand Volume Growth Model of Chinese Fir Plantations Based on Bayesian Model Averaging Approach
Zhen WANG, Le-le LU, Xiong-qing ZHANG, Jian-guo ZHANG, Ai-guo JIANG Li, Ai-guo DUAN
2021, 34(3): 64-71.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.007
[Abstract](1311) [FullText HTML](1064) [PDF 702KB](45)
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Objective To study the factors influencing the stand volume change of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations under the context of climate change. Method Based on the long term spacing trails of Chinese fir plantations established in Weimin Forest Farm, Shaowu, Fujian Province, the authors modeled the stand volume growth in relation to stand variables (including planting density, stand basal area per hectare, number of trees per hectare, stand quadratic mean diameter, dominant height, age) and climatic factors (including mean annual temperature, mean warmest month temperature, mean coldest month temperature, mean annual precipitation, annual heat-moisture index, degree-days below 0℃, summer mean maximum temperature, winter mean minimum temperature, spring (March to May) mean temperature) based on Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and stepwise regression methods (SR). Result The stand volume of Chinese fir increased with the increase of stand basal area per hectare, stand quadratic mean diameter, stand dominant height, age, summer mean maximum temperature, spring mean temperature, and Degree-days below 0℃. The model determined by SR method was not in the top five models with the highest posterior probability selected by BMA, which indicated that the model uncertainty. In view of the posterior probability of a model, SR method had lower accuracy. Conclusion The stand volume of Chinese fir plantations is significantly affected by stand and climate factors. Compared with SR method, BMA method shows a better performance because of its considering the model uncertainty.
Diameter Distribution of Semi-natural Mixed Forest of Pinus massoniana and Broadleaved Trees Based on Stratification
Jin-chi WANG, Ming-hai YAN, Qing-lin HUANG, Ru-chu HUANG, Qun-rui ZHENG
2021, 34(3): 72-80.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.008
[Abstract](1326) [FullText HTML](916) [PDF 739KB](53)
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Objective The diameter distribution of each storey (including the whole stand and sublayers) of semi-natural mixed forest of Pinus massoniana and broadleaved trees was studied to reveal the diameter distribution characteristics of the stand and provide data for their sustainable management. Method Based on 10 semi-natural mixed forests plots, the maximum light-receiving plane method was used to divide storey, and the Shapiro-Wilk test was used to measure the normality of the diameter distribution of each plot and storey; the skewness and kurtosis coefficients were used to describe the graphic characteristics of the diameter distribution. The diameter distributions of each plot and storey were fitted by three-parameter Weibull distribution and the Meyer negative exponential function, and the chi-square test was used to test the fitting effect, then the function with better fitting effects was selected to fit the distribution chart of each plot, and analyzed the distribution characteristics of the stand. Result There were five plots whose sublayer Ⅰ obeyed normal distribution, but for all sample plots, the diameter distribution of all the whole stand and the sublayer Ⅱ followed an inversed J shape were not obeying normal distribution. The skewness coefficient of all the whole stand and sublayers were positive value, the kurtosis coefficient of the whole stand of 7 plots were less than 0, and for most plots the skewness coefficient and the absolute value of the kurtosis coefficient of the whole stand were between that values of the sublayer Ⅰ and the sublayer Ⅱ. The Weibull distribution function has a good fitting effect on the whole stand and the sublayer Ⅰ. The pass rates of the chi-square test of the whole stand, the sublayer Ⅰ and the sublayer Ⅱ were 80%, 100%, and 70%, respectively. Meyer negative exponential function could fit the sublayer Ⅱ better, while the adaptability to the whole stand and the sublayer Ⅰ were poor, especially the pass rate of the sublayer Ⅰ was only 10%, but the pass rate of the sublayer Ⅱ reached 100%. Conclusion There are significant differences in the diameter distribution of the whole stand and each sublayer of the semi-natural mixed forest of P. massoniana and broadleaved trees, the diameter distribution of sublayer Ⅰ tends to be normal distribution while the whole stand and the sublayer Ⅱ are inverse J shaped and not obeying normal distribution. The diameter distribution from sublayer Ⅱ to sublayer Ⅰ shows a transition trend from negative exponential distribution to normal distribution. For all sample plots, the diameter distribution curves of each storey are right-skewed, and the curves of the whole stand of most sample plots are platykurtic. The Weibull distribution function has a good fitting effect on the whole stand and the sublayer Ⅰ, while the Meyer negative exponential function is suitable for fitting diameter distribution of sublayer Ⅱ.
Population Structure and Spatial Distribution Pattern of Kmeria septentrionalis an Endangered Species, in Karst Habitat
Guo-hai WANG, Yang PAN, Guo-le QIN, Wei-ning TAN, Chang-hu LU
2021, 34(3): 81-87.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.009
[Abstract](1142) [FullText HTML](769) [PDF 802KB](27)
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Objective Taking the natural regeneration population of endangered plant Kmeria septentrionalis in karst habitat as object to study the population regeneration structure, spatial distribution pattern and environmental impact factors. Method Point pattern and generalized mixed linear model were used to complete a linear fitting of the spatial distribution pattern and environmental impact factors of the regeneration population of K. septentrionalis. Result (1) The population structure of K. septentrionalis was in an inverted “J” type, the survival curve was close to Deevey-Ⅲ; the existence of a large number of young-aged seedlings indicated that the regeneration condition of K. septentrionalis population was good. (2) Except for the weak random distribution on a small scale, the other scales were in a clustered distribution. (3) The canopy density, soil moisture and rock exposure rate were the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of K. septentrionalis. Conclusion The condition of the regeneration population of K. septentrionalis in the study area is good, and the high-intensity spatial aggregation distribution is mainly the combined action of the seed biological characteristics and karst habitat.
Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Litter Decomposition and Soil Microorganisms of Typical Subalpine Forests in Central Yunnan, China
Yu PAN, Ya-li SONG, Ke-qin WANG, Yu-jian ZHANG, Xing-rui ZHENG
2021, 34(3): 88-97.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.010
[Abstract](1311) [FullText HTML](946) [PDF 984KB](27)
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Objective To study the relationship between litter decomposition and soil microbial characteristic under simulated nitrogen (N) deposition so as to provide references for studying the response mechanism of carbon and nitrogen cycles under N deposition in forest ecosystem. Method In this study, the litter of four typical subalpine forests (evergreen broadleaved forest, Pinus armandii forest, Quercus semicarpifolia forest, Pinus yunnanensis forest) in central Yunnan were taken as the research objects. From February 2018 to January 2019, through simulating the nitrogen deposition and in-situ decomposition experiments, the litter bag method was used to study the variations of litter carbon and nitrogen, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and soil microbial quantity under different simulated N depositions. Four treatment levels of N deposition were applied, i.e., low nitrogen (LN, 5 g·m−2·a−1), medium nitrogen (MN, 15 g·m−2·a−1), high nitrogen (HN, 30 g·m−2·a−1) and the control (CK, 0 g·m−2·a−1). Result Under different N deposition treatments for one year, the C content in the litter of evergreen broadleaved forest and Quercus semicarpifolia forest increased significantly (0.40%~8.16%), while that of Pinus armandii forest and Pinus yunnanensis forest decreased by 2.67% under LN but increased by 4.09% under HN. The N content of litter of all these forests increased significantly (1.45%~69.01%), while the C/N ratio decreased significantly (0.34%~37.92%). Under the same N deposition, the soil microbial biomass decreased with the depth of soil layer, and the influence of N deposition on the vertical distribution pattern was not significant. The effect of N deposition on soil MBC and MBN in evergreen broadleaved forest and Quercus semicarpifolia forest was inhibited, and the effect of N deposition on Pinus armandii forest and Pinus yunnanensis forest was promoted with low N and inhibited with high N. The soil MBC/MBN ratio ranged from 5.31 to 11.26 in the four forests. The effects of N deposition on MBC/MBN ratio of different soil layers in different forests were different, but all of them was inhibited by high N treatment. Conclusion Litter decomposition in typical subalpine forests in central Yunnan is mainly affected by forest types, followed by N deposition. The soil microbial biomass and quantity are mainly affected by forest types, followed by soil depth, while the effect of N deposition is the smallest.
Comparison and Analysis of Diversified Intestinal Flora of Buzura suppressaria Larvae and Endophytes in Eucalyptus Leaves
Ya-ting ZHONG, Dong-xia ZOU, Wang-jiao LIAO, Ning HUANG, Ji LUO
2021, 34(3): 98-107.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.011
[Abstract](1155) [FullText HTML](815) [PDF 1001KB](23)
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Objective This study is to investigate the diversified intestinal flora of Buzura suppressaria larvae and Eucalyptus leaves which are the major food of B. suppressaria, and to analyze the inner relationship between them. Method Illumina Miseq technology was applied to sequence the bacteria 16S rDNA and fungi ITS rDNA in the intestinal of the 5th instar larvae and Eucalyptus leaves. Both the diversity and abundance of the bacteria and fungi in the intestinal and Eucalyptus leaves were analyzed. Result The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that the bacteria populations in the intestinal tract of B. Suppressaria larvae were annotated into 6 phyla, 11 classes, 19 orders, 38 families and 43 genus, whereas the fungi populations were categorized into 8 phyla, 29 classes, 67 orders, 159 families and 257 genus. The Endophytic bacteria found in Eucalyptus leaves included 10 phyla, 19 classes, 26 orders, 54 families and 74 genus, and the fungi included 8 phyla, 31 classes, 79 orders, 171 families and 291 genus. The main pathogenic bacteria of Eucalyptus were found in both of the Eucalyptus leaves and the larvae intestinal tract, including the orders of Colletotrichum, Pseudomonas, Pseudocercospora, Aureobasidium, Septoria, Lasiodiplodia and Neofusicoccum. Conclusion The diversity and abundance of bacteria and fungi populations in the intestinal tract of B. suppressaria larvae were different from those of the Eucalyptus leaves, which had an important influence on the intestinal microbial community structure. The gnawing or fecal contact of B. suppressaria larvae carrying certain pathogens may be the cause of the pathogen infecting healthy Eucalyptus leaves.
Surface Fuel Loading of Pinus massoniana Forest in Different Succession Stages and Relevant Affecting Factors
Xiu-fang ZHANG, Dong-jin HE, Ying LI, Si-xiao YAN, Wei-bin YOU
2021, 34(3): 108-117.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.012
[Abstract](1069) [FullText HTML](801) [PDF 792KB](20)
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Objective Based on the analysis of the variation characteristics of the fuel loading of Pinus massoniana forest in different succession stages, to determine the key factors affecting the surface fuel load. Method Taking pure P. massoniana forests with different age classes in Wuyishan National Park as the research object, alternative method of temporal and spatial was used to analyze the characteristics of different types of surface fuel loading and their relationship with terrain, stand, and meteorological factors. Result (1) With the succession of P. massoniana forest, the surface live fuel loading decreased, while the dead fuel loading and total fuel loading increased. The total fuel loading was mainly caused by 1 hour dead fuel loading. (2) The difference between young and mature P. massoniana stands was the most obvious. At the late stage of succession, the surface live fuel loading decreased by 47.21% and the surface dead fuel loading increased by 113%. (3) According to RDA ranking method, the surface fuel loading were closely related to terrain factors (such as altitude, slope position), stand factor (such as average branch-free bole height, average DBH, and canopy density) and meteorological factors (such as air temperature). (4) Linear regression analysis showed that different types of surface fuel loading had different influence factors, among which the average DBH had the greatest impact on the shrub fuel loading, the slope position had the greatest impact on the herb fuel and 1 hour dead fuel loading, the average clear bole height had the greatest impact on the 10 hour dead fuel and total fuel loading. Conclusion Surface fuel loading of P. massoniana forest are different in various succession stages and the influence factors vary with different types of surface fuel.
Morphological and Biomass Characteristics of Fargesia decurvata in Different Forest Types in Jinfo Mountain
Chun-yan XIA, Hui-min HUANG, Hong XIA, Hai-yan SONG, Jian-ping TAO
2021, 34(3): 118-126.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.013
[Abstract](1360) [FullText HTML](861) [PDF 790KB](27)
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Objective To study the growth and reproduction characteristics of Fargesia decurvata J. L. Lu under different forest types, and the trade-off characteristics of clonal reproduction and sexual reproduction of long-lived, one-time flowering bamboos. Method F. decurvata, the dominant species in shrub layer under three forest types, i.e. deciduous broad-leaved forest (De), evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (De+Ev) and evergreen broad-leaved forest (Ev) was selected as experimental materials, to study the morphological plasticity, biomass accumulation and biomass distribution characteristics and reproductive characteristics in vegetative stage and ripening stage. Result (1) From vegetative stage to ripening stage, the amount of leaves decreased significantly in De and De+Ev, and there was no significant change in Ev. The length of the splitter, the amount of internode of the splitter, the mean diameter of the splitter, and the internode length of the splitter all decreased in De and De+Ev, and increased in Ev. During the ripening stage, the amount of spikelets in De was higher than that in De+Ev and Ev. (2) During the transition from vegetative growth to ripening stage, the leaf biomass accumulation and leaf biomass allocation of F. decurvata ramets in De and De+Ev decreased sharply, there was no significant change in the biomass of other components in this two types of forest; the biomass accumulation of each component in Ev increased significantly except for the leaves, and the biomass allocation increased significantly in the branches, and decreased in the leaves and roots; the stems and branches as supporting organs accounted for a large amount of biomass allocation in the three forest types. (3) During the vegetative growth stage, F. decurvata in the three forest types produced shoots for clonal growth, and the amount of bamboo shoots per unit area of De+Ev was significantly higher than Ev. However, no shoots were produced during the ripening stage, only seeds were produced, and the amount of bamboo seedlings per unit area of Ev was significantly lower than that of the other two forest types. The tissue density was significantly higher than that in vegetative growth stage. The seed setting rate and reproductive distribution of F. decurvata were very low. Conclusion The morphological characteristics, biomass accumulation and biomass allocation characteristics of F. decurvata population are different in various life history stages, and there are also differences among these forest types. There is an obvious trade-off between clonal growth and sexual reproduction, as sexual reproduction progresses, the clonal growth capacity will weaken and disappear.
Effects of Thinning Intensity on Soil Quality and Growth of Teak Plantation
Qing-qing ZHANG, Zai-zhi ZHOU, Gui-hua HUANG, Guang YANG, Gao-feng LIU, Kun-nan LIANG
2021, 34(3): 127-134.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.014
[Abstract](1098) [FullText HTML](778) [PDF 701KB](26)
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Objective To explore the effects of thinning intensity on the growth of teak, on soil physicochemical properties and on enzyme activity. Method Taking 15 years old pure forest of teak (Tectona grandis) as trial object, four thinning intensity treatments, including low, moderate, heavy thinning and the control were set. The growth, soil properties and enzyme activities of teak plantation were measured 3.5 years after thinning, and the difference of these indexes with different intensity treatment was analyzed. Redundant analysis method (RDA) was used to study the relationship between tree growth, soil enzyme activity and soil property. Result The effects of thinning on soil physicochemical properties and enzyme activities were showed mainly in 0-20 cm soil layer. The soil moisture content of the surface soil increased and soil pH reduced after thinning. The contents of soil organic matter and alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen was positively correlated with the intensity of thinning treatment, In 0-20 cm soil layer, the organic matter contents under moderate and heavy thinning increased by 18.2% and 19.0% compared with the control, and the alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen content was respectively 15.7% and 16.6% higher than that of the control. The contents of total nitrogen and exchangeable calcium also increased after thinning. The activity of invertase and acid phosphatase in 0-20 cm soil layer was significantly enhanced by thinning, but there was no significant difference in urease and catalase contents. The average breast-height diameter and the volume of individual trees of teak plantation increased with the intensity of thinning treatment, and the stand basal area and volume were higher than those of the control. Under heavy thinning treatment, the annual increment of growth indexes of teak was the largest and significantly higher than that of the control, while both the individual volume and stand volume increment were higher than of the control by 80.0% and 90.2% respectively. There was a positive correlation between soil organic matter, available phosphorus and tree growth indexes. Soil water holding capacity, density and total porosity were the main environmental factors affecting soil enzyme activity. Conclusion Thinning can improve soil nutrient and water status, promotes the growth of teak, and the productivity of forest land can increase obviously. Thinning significantly enhances the C cycle-related invertase activity and increases the activity of N, P cycle-related enzymes. Total nitrogen, soil bulk density are the key factors affecting enzyme activity. The suitable thinning intensity of 15-year-old teak plantation is 40%-45%.
Variations of Leaf Functional Traits of Some Understory Species in Acacia mangium Plantation
Qi-feng MO, Jie-jun KONG, Yi-ying WANG, Yi-qun CHEN, Zhi-hang HE, Xiao-dong LIU, Wen-juan WANG, Zhong-tong PENG, Pei-qiao ZHONG
2021, 34(3): 135-144.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.015
[Abstract](1337) [FullText HTML](980) [PDF 828KB](27)
Abstract:
Objective To study the variation of leaf functional traits of different understory shrubs in Acacia mangium Willd. plantation, so as to provide references for species selection for regeneration of understory vegetation in mature plantation in southern China. Method In this paper, four understory shrubs, including Psychotria rubra (Lour.) Poir., Ilex asprella (Hook. et Arn.) Champ. ex Benth var.as, Evodia lepta (Spreng.), and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. in a thirty-four-year reforested A. mangium plantation in Heshan City, Guangdong Province, were used to study the variation of leaf functional traits and try to clarify the adapting mechanisms of understory species to light environment in plantation. Result (1) The leaf mass per area (LMA) of R. tomentosa was the highest, with the value of 157.51 g·m-2, which was significantly higher than those of the other species, and the LMA of I. asprella was the smallest; the leaf N and P concentrations of E. lepta was the highest, but with the lowest N: P ratios; (2) Both the Chl a and Chl b contents in I. asprella leaves were significantly larger than those of the other species, and the leaf carotinoid content in I. asprella was lower than that of P. rubra, but higher than that of E. lepta and R. tomentosa; (3) The leaf soluble sugar and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) of I. asprella was significantly higher than those of the other species, and the leaf starch concentration of I. asprella was also significantly larger than those of E. lepta and R. tomentosa, indicating that I. asprella can well adapt to the shade environment via storing relatively higher soluble sugar and starch. Conclusion Among the four understory plants, the lower LMA of I. asprella can be helpful to maintain the strong photosynthetic capacity. Also, the higher NSC in leaf of I. asprella can provide stable energy for adapting shade environment. Therefore, I. asprella can be a selective species for regeneration of understory in mature plantation in southern China.
Influence of Talaromyces aurantiacus on the Soil Phosphorus Fraction and Biomass of Moso Bamboo Seedling
Dou YANG, Fu-xi SHI, Song-ze WAN, Guang-qiang LI, Ling-gang KONG, Yang ZHANG
2021, 34(3): 145-151.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.016
[Abstract](1058) [FullText HTML](806) [PDF 664KB](12)
Abstract:
Objective To explore the contribution of the phosphorus-solubilizing fungi Talaromyces aurantiacus JXBR04 to soil phosphorus bioavailability in growth promotion of Phyllostachys edulis. Method Greenhouse potting experiment was used to study the effect of the strain on the content of phosphorus bioavailability in the rhizosphere soil of Ph. edulis. The contents of available phosphorus, mineral nitrogen the activities of related soil enzymes in the soil were analyzed, and the growth-promoting effect on Ph. edulis by inoculating on JXBR04 was evaluated. Results Compared with the control, the application of JXBR04 significantly increased the content of HCl-P and CaCl2-P fraction, increased the activities of soil urease and catalase in the rhizosphere soil of Ph. edulis, while the content of enzyme-P, citric acid-P fraction, the activities of soil acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were not affected. The content of soil available phosphorus and mineral nitrogen increased by 78.3% and 13.3%, respectively. The content of HCl-P and CaCl2-P in soil was significantly positively correlated with the content of available phosphorus in soil and the biomass of Ph. edulis, indicating that the application of JXBR04 significantly promoted the biomass of Ph. edulis. Conclusion The increase of available phosphorus in soil is driven mainly by the content of CaCl2-P and HCl-P fraction though inoculating on strain JXBR04, which can promote Ph. edulis to absorb and utilize the available phosphorus to increase biomass. This regulated process is not mediated by soil phosphatase.
Growth and Form-quality Traits Diversity Analysis of Young Ormosia hosiei Family
De-qing XIAO, Zhang-wen DENG, Qian-qian LUO, Zhao-you XU, Bin SHEN, Huan-wei CHEN, Hong-hui XU, Zhi-chun ZHOU
2021, 34(3): 152-157.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.017
[Abstract](1051) [FullText HTML](826) [PDF 508KB](17)
Abstract:
Objective By testing Ormosia hosiei elite families to reveal the genetic variation of the growth and form-quality traits of O. hosiei families, and provide a reference for the breeding and directional cultivation of the superior materials of O. hosiei. Method 3-year O. hosiei elite family plantations were used to study the genetic variation and the correlation among traits. The experimental forests were established in 2017 at two sites (Longquan of Zhejiang Province and Fuzhou of Jiangxi Province). Result The genetic differences of the growth and shape traits of 3-year-old O. hosiei were significant (p < 0.01). The variation coefficient of the growth and form-quality traits of the two sites ranged between 23.3% and 65.1%. With the exception of stem straightness, the estimated values of all the other family heritability traits of O. hosiei were high, and the variation ranged between 0.36 to 0.83, subjected to moderate to strong genetic control. The estimated values of individual heritability of tree height (0.87) was higher than that of family heritability (0.83) in Longquan, Zhejiang, which was strongly controlled by heredity. The individual heritability of O. hosiei trees in both the two sites was lower than the family heritability, the variation of individual heritability was from 0.04 to 0.61, which was under moderate to weak genetic control. On the whole, the genetic correlation coefficient was greater than the phenotypic correlation coefficient. The O. hosiei family with higher height and larger basal diameter has more branches and thicker branches. The plants with higher stem straightness can be selected indirectly through the selection of ground diameter. Conclusion There are extremely significant genetic differences, and the range of variation is large. Most traits were controlled by moderate to strong inheritance. The fast-growing O. hosiei individuals have more branches and thicker branches, which is beneficial to the breeding of O. hosiei germplasm resources.
Study on Growth and Physiological Response Mechanism of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge under Salt-alkali Stress
Jian-wei ZONG, Zhi-long ZHANG, Ke-xin XUE, Shuang-shuang WANG, Yu-hua YANG
2021, 34(3): 158-165.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.018
[Abstract](1175) [FullText HTML](844) [PDF 847KB](32)
Abstract:
Objective To explore the physiological response mechanism of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge under saline-alkali conditions, so as to provide reference for silviculture in saline-alkali land. Method The relative conductivity, the activity of proline and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied to observe the change of physiological indicators. The influences of different concentrations of NaCl (70, 140, 210, 280 mmol·L−1) and Na2CO3 (35, 70, 105, 140 mmol·L−1) on the growth and physiological characteristics of one-year-old X. sorbifolia seedlings were observed by pot experiment. Result With the increase of saline-alkali concentration, the relative conductivity, the contents of proline and soluble protein changed significantly. The experimental data was larger than that of control group under high concentrations stress. Compared with the CK, the content of malondialdehyde increased significantly after 12 days of treatment with 210 mmol·L−1 salt and 105 mmol·L−1 alkali, and reached a peak with the concentrations of NaCl and Na2CO3 were 280 mmol·L−1 and 105mmol·L−1 respectively. Moreover, the SOD activity continued to increase under the stress, while the activity increased and then declined with the strengthen of the treatment concentration. Additionally, Two-way ANOVA showed that the time duration and concentration had extremely significant correlated with relative conductivity and proline content (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis demonstrated that the five physiological indicators measured in the leaves of seedlings under salt-alkali stress had significant positive correlation (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis was also applied after standardization of all index data. A principal component with eigenvalue greater than 1 was extracted under two different salt treatments. The cumulative variance contribution rate under NaCl treatment reached 82.423%, and the cumulative variance contribution rate under Na2CO3 treatment was 77.725%. Conclusion Under salt and alkali stress, X. sorbifolia Bunge mainly protects the integrity of the cell membrane system by accumulating a large amount of osmotic adjustment substances and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the antioxidant enzyme system, the activity of SOD is higher under low-concentration stress than that of control group. However, the enzyme activity is destroyed under high concentration stress, which shows an obvious phenomenon of threshold value.
Screening of Camellia oleifera Rootstock Genotypes Tolerant to Low Phosphorus and Identification of Indexes Tolerant to Phosphorus Deficiency
Jin ZENG, Lan ZHAO, Juan LIU, Yong-kang DUAN, Shu-yuan WANG, Zhen-li WANG, Tian-tian GAI, Zhi-hua REN, Xiao-min GUO, Dong-nan HU
2021, 34(3): 166-173.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.019
[Abstract](1010) [FullText HTML](797) [PDF 632KB](9)
Abstract:
Objective To screen the rootstocks with high tolerance to low phosphorus and the key indexes which can be used to identify low phosphorus tolerance of Camellia oleifera through evaluating different cultivates rootstocks tolerant to the low phosphorus. Method The pot seedling experiment with normal-P (1 mmol·L−1) and low-P (0 mmol·L−1) was carried out. A total of twelve seedlings of C. oleifera genotypes were selected. Fourteen indexes of each seedling of C. oleifera, including biomass, leaf area, leaf morphology, root morphology, total phosphorus content and so on, were measured under two different treatments. The coefficient tolerant to low P was used to evaluate the low P resistance and distinguish index of the low P tolerance for C. oleifera using a regression model. Result Under low P stress, the biomass accumulation in the shoot and root of most C. oleifera cultivates was generally reduced, and the ratio of root to shoot and PUE was generally increased. The result of PCA analysis showed that the 14 indexes were transformed into 4 independent comprehensive indexes, and their cumulative contribution rate reached 90.398%. The 12 C. oleifera varieties were divided into three types by D-value clustering, among which GF20, CL3, 84-3 were clustered as a type of relatively intolerant to low P, W1, CL53, GX48 as the intermediate type, G8, CL4, W2, CL40, CL18, 83-4 as low P tolerance. The equation model of PA (Total phosphorus accumulation), SPC (Shoot phosphorus content), TRA (Total root surface area), LW (Leaf width), RPC (Root phosphorus content) was established by stepwise regression: D = -0.960 + 0.666PA + 0.341SPC + 0.379TRA + 0.460LW + 0.197RPC. Conclusion Low P will inhibit the growth and total P accumulation and increase the ratio of root to shoot and total PUE for C. oleifera. The cultivates of G8, CL4, W2, CL40, CL18, 83-4 should be considered as the relatively low P tolerance varieties. The total P accumulation, aboveground P content, total root surface area, leaf width and toot P content could be identified as indicators for C. oleifera tolerant to low phosphorus.
Temporal and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Negative Air Ion in Platycladus orientalis Forest of Jiulong Mountain, Beijing
Hai YU, Jia GUO, En-jie LI, Shun-xiang PEI, Di WU, Xue-bing XIN
2021, 34(3): 174-179.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.020
[Abstract](1220) [FullText HTML](890) [PDF 1604KB](36)
Abstract:
Objective To investigate the distribution of negative air ion (NAI) concentration in Jiulong Mountain which locates in suburb of Beijing, and understand the role of forest vegetation in improving air quality. Method KEC-900 air ion detector was used to measure and record the NAI concentration at 11 plots of P. orientalis stand in Jiulong Mountain of Beijing according to day, month, altitude and aspect by the method of fixed observation. Result The diurnal variation of NAI concentration in Jiulong Mountain differed among seasons. The curves of diurnal variation of NAI concentration in spring and summer followed a single-peak type, and the spring and summer peak values appeared at 12: 00 and 14: 00. The curves of diurnal variation of NAI concentration in autumn and winter followed a double-peak type, and the peak values appeared at 8: 00 and 18: 00. The monthly average concentration of NAI was characterized by two peaks in May and October, with values of 691 ions per cm3 and 920 ions per cm3. The concentration of NAI rose at first and then decreased with the increase of altitude. When the altitude is higher than 450 m, the NAI concentration in the P. orientalis forest was greater than in the forest edge. In the P. orientalis forest locates in Sijiangou with the altitude of 140m, the NAI concentration on the sunny slope was slightly lower than that on the shaded slope (P > 0.05) in April, and the NAI concentration on the sunny slope was significantly higher than that on the shaded slope (P < 0.05) in August. Conclusion The NAI concentration in the P. orientalis forest of Jiulong Mountain have obvious spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, that is, the concentration of NAI shows "single peak type" or "double peak type" with time, and shows "single peak type" with altitude, and is affected by both the aspect and the time.
Scietific Notes
Effects of Stand Factors of Pinus tabulaeformis Stand on Damage of Matsucoccus sinensis in Bailongjiang Forest Area
Dan-chun LI, Zuo-lin FU, Hong-xia XU, Xiu-wen CAO, Jin-qian LIU
2021, 34(3): 180-186.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.021
[Abstract](1011) [FullText HTML](768) [PDF 742KB](8)
Abstract:
Objective To study the effects of stand factors of Pinus tabulaeformis stand on the damage severity of Matsucoccus sinensis, so as to provide reference for the prevention and control of M. sinensis in Bailongjiang forest area. Method Pure P. tabulaeformis stands with relatively uniform age structure (about 25 years-old) were selected as the object in Bailongjiang forest area, and seven stand factors, including herb coverage, stand density, canopy density, tree height, height under branch, DBH and crown width, and the pest severity index of M. sinensis were investigated in the sample plots. The relationship between stand factors and pest severity index in the plot was analyzed. Result The results showed that six stand factors, i.e. herb coverage, stand density, tree height, height underbranch, DBH and crown width, had significant effect on the damage severity of pure P. tabulaeformis stand, but the canopy density showed less effect. Through multiple regression analysis and stepwise regression analysis, the key stand factors affecting the damage severity of M. sinensis were found to be herb coverage, stand density and height under branch. Herb coverage had a significant effect on the pest severity index of M. sinensis (P < 0.01). The correlation analysis showed that with the increase of herb coverage, the pest severity index decreased. The effect of stand density on the pest severity index of M. sinensis was very significant (P < 0.01), and the damage of low density stand (381~763 trees·hm−2) was aggravated by M. sinensis, the stand density (>763 trees·hm−2) of P. tabulaeformis stand was less damaged. There was a significant difference in the effect of height under branch on the pest severity index (P < 0.01), the stand with the height under branch of 3.5~4.4 m was seriously damaged by M. sinensis, while the stand with lower height under branch (1.1~3.5 m) was less damaged. Conclusion The stand factors of pure P. tabulaeformis stand are closely related to the occurrence and damage of M. sinensis, and the three stand factors (herb coverage, stand density and the height under branch) have the most significant effect on the occurrence and damage of M. sinensis. It is suggested that adjusting the stand factors, pruning and thinning are effective in preventing and controlling the damage of M. sinensis.
Isolation and Investigation on Properties of Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Broussonetia papyrifera Hybrid
Jun ZHANG, Yi-nan PENG, Qi GUO, Pei-ya WANG, Xin LI, Hui YANG
2021, 34(3): 187-193.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.022
[Abstract](1049) [FullText HTML](865) [PDF 679KB](12)
Abstract:
Objective To obtain strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria from Broussonetia papyrifera (Linnaeus) L’Héritier ex Ventenat hybrid and determine their functional characteristics. Method The Ashby medium was selected as separation condition to isolated nitrogen-fixing bacteria from the roots and rhizosphere soil of B. papyrifera hybrid in Tianshui, Lanzhou and Zhangye experimental areas of Gansu Province. In addition, identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out on the isolated nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The nitrogenase activity, phosphorus solubility, properties of IAA-producing and inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi of each strain were determined at the same time. Entropy weight method was used for comprehensive evaluation of the features of the strains. Result A total of 10 nitrogen-fixing bacteria was isolated from the soil far from the rhizosphere and topsoil, which belonged to 8 genera, mostly Pseudoxanthomonas. Each strain showed nitrogenase activity, among which the nitrogenase activity of the strains TS4 and HP10 was greater than 180 IU·L−1. Only the strains TS4 and HTZ2 had certain phosphorus solubility. 8 strains could secrete IAA, among which the strain HTZ4 demonstrated the strongest secretion ability, with an IAA increment of 44.62 µg·mL−1. All strains showed no antagonistic effect on Botrytis cinerea Persoon, 7 strains showed inhibitory effects on at least two kinds of plant pathogens. The strains HTZ4, HTZ3, and HP5 showed the strongest inhibitory activities against Alternaria solani (Ellis et G. Martin) Sorauer, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht and Fusarium solani (Martius) Sacco, respectively, with inhibition rates of 50.00%, 48.78% and 47.37%. To sum up, the strains with strong comprehensive properties were the strains TS4, HP5, ZY9, HTZ4 and HTZ5. Conclusion The results of this study can provide data and references for further developing nitrogen-fixing strains with excellent comprehensive performance, multifunctional nitrogen-fixing bacterial fertilizer for Broussonetia papyrifera hybrid, and promoting the yield of Broussonetia papyrifera hybrid in semi-arid area of Northwest China.
Establishment of Tissue Culture System of Betula albo-sinensis
Xue-ning FU, Hong-zhi GAO, Yao-rong SHEN, Yong-kang WANG, Zai-min JIANG, Jing CAI
2021, 34(3): 194-200.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.03.023
[Abstract](1313) [FullText HTML](932) [PDF 709KB](16)
Abstract:
Objective To explore the optimal medium ratio at each stage of the tissue culture of Betula albo-sinensis, to establish the tissue culture system of B. albo-sinensis, and provide theoretical support for the studies on species selection of superior varieties, directional cultivation and genetic transformation of B. albo-sinensis. Method Using dormant buds of B. albo-sinensis as explants to study the optimal disinfection and sterilization method of explants, the effect of 6-BA and NAA concentrations on the germination of dormant buds and proliferation culture, and the effects of basic medium types, IBA and sucrose concentrations on the induction of adventitious root. Result The optimal tissue culture system of B. albo-sinensis established in this study is as follows. (1) Using B. albo-sinensis dormant buds as explants, and sterilized with 70% alcohol for 30 seconds and washed with sterile water for 3-4 times, then sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 for 8 minutes and washed with sterile water for 5-6 times to obtain sterile materials. (2) The optimal medium for the germination of dormant buds is WPM basic medium with 1.5 mg·L−1 6-BA and 0.1 mg·L−1 NAA, the germination rate of explants is 83.33%. (3) The best proliferation culture is WPM adding 1.5 mg·L−1 6-BA and 0.02 mg·L−1 NAA, with a proliferation coefficient of 4.77 and a health index of 2.45. (4) The most suitable medium for adventitious root induction is WPM supplemented with 0.8 mg·L−1 IBA, the rooting rate is 100%, and the root health index is 2.61. All the media are supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose and 7 g·L−1 agar. Conclusion With WPM as the basic medium and different concentrations of 6-BA, NAA and IBA added, the culture of B. albo-sinensis at all stages could be successfully carried out, and a complete regeneration system of organogenesis generation pathway is established. The transplant survival rate of regenerated plants is higher than 80%.
Advances in Tissue Culture Techniques of Trees and the Problems Existed
HUANG Lie-jian, WANG Hong
2016, 29(3): 464-471.  
[Abstract](1991) [PDF 914KB](1596)
Effect of Thinning on Growth and Timber Outturn in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation
XU Jin-liang, MAO Yu-ming, ZHENG Cheng-zhong, FAN Rong-de, ZHOU Shi-shui, CHEN Yong-hui, CHENG Xiang-rong, YU Mu-kui
2014, 27(1): 99-107.  
[Abstract](2262) [PDF 992KB](1417)
Comparison on Osmotica Accumulation of Different Salt-tolerant Plants under Salt Stress
CHENG Tie-long, LI Huan-yong, WU Hai-wen, LIU Zheng-xiang, WU xiang, YANG Sheng, ZHANG Hua-xin, YANG Xiu-yan
2015, 28(6): 826-832.  
[Abstract](2114) [PDF 1605KB](1105)
Research Progress of Structure-based Forest Management
Gang-ying HUI, Yan-bo HU, Zhong-hua ZHAO
2018, 31(1): 85-93.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.01.011
[Abstract](3398) [FullText HTML](981) [PDF 2383KB](731)
On the Maintenance of Long-term Productivity of Plantation in China
Wei-tong SHENG
2018, 31(1): 1-14.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.01.001
[Abstract](2528) [FullText HTML](597) [PDF 1291KB](918)
Growth and Structure Differentiation of Phoebe bournei Plantation with Different Sites and Modes of Afforestation
CHU Xiu-li, LIU Qing-hua, FAN Hui-hua, WANG Sheng-hua, CHEN Liu-ying, ZHOU Zhi-chun
2014, 27(4): 445-453.  
[Abstract](2204) [PDF 1443KB](1361)
Quantitative Analysis of Forest Spatial Structure and Optimal Species Composition for the Main Forest Types in Daxing'anling, Northeast China
DONG Ling-bo, LIU Zhao-gang, LI Feng-ri, JIANG Lei
2014, 27(6): 734-740.  
[Abstract](2339) [PDF 1059KB](1157)
Studies on Seedling Photosynthetic Characteristics of Five Tree Species under Drought Stress
HAN Bo, LI Zhi-yong, GUO Hao, ZHANG Jun-pei
2014, 27(1): 92-98.  
[Abstract](2066) [PDF 1078KB](1254)
Stoichiometry Characterization of Soil C, N and P of Pinus massoniana Plantations at Different Age Stages
LEI Li-qun, LU Li-hua, NONG You, MING An-gang, LIU Shi-ling, HE Yuan
2017, 30(6): 954-960.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2017.06.010
[Abstract](1787) [PDF 1293KB](740)
Effect of Close-to-Nature Management on Species Diversity in a Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation
SUN Dong-jing, WEN Yuan-guang, LUO Ying-hua, LI Xiao-qiong, ZHANG Wan-xing, MING An-gang
2015, 28(2): 202-208.  
[Abstract](1976) [PDF 1225KB](1297)

Journal Information

Publication name:林业科学研究 Forest Research

Editor:ZHANG Shou-gong

Sponsors by:Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences

Address:Chinese Academy of Forestry after Beijing Wanshou Mountain

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ISSN 1001-1498

CN 11-1221/S

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